Custom Helpers

# Extending CodeceptJS With Custom Helpers

Helper is the core concept of CodeceptJS. Helper is a wrapper on top of various libraries providing unified interface around them. When I object is used in tests it delegates execution of its functions to currently enabled helper classes.

Use Helpers to introduce low-level API to your tests without polluting test scenarios. Helpers can also be used to share functionality accross different project and installed as npm packages.

# Development

Helpers can be created by running a generator command:

npx codeceptjs gh

or npx codeceptjs generate:helper

This command generates a basic helper, append it to helpers section of config file:

helpers: {
  WebDriver: {  },
  MyHelper: {
    require: './path/to/module'
  }
}

Helpers are classes inherited from corresponding abstract class (opens new window). Created helper file should look like this:

const Helper = require('@codeceptjs/helper');

class MyHelper extends Helper {

  // before/after hooks
  _before() {
    // remove if not used
  }

  _after() {
    // remove if not used
  }

  // add custom methods here
  // If you need to access other helpers
  // use: this.helpers['helperName']

}

module.exports = MyHelper;

When the helper is enabled in config all methods of a helper class are available in I object. For instance, if we add a new method to helper class:

const Helper = require('@codeceptjs/helper');

class MyHelper extends Helper {

  doAwesomeThings() {
    console.log('Hello from MyHelpr');
  }

}

We can call a new method from within I:

I.doAwesomeThings();

Methods starting with _ are considered special and won't available in I object.

Please note, I object can't be used helper class. As I object delegates its calls to helper classes, you can't make a circular dependency on it. Instead of calling I inside a helper, you can get access to other helpers by using helpers property of a helper. This allows you to access any other enabled helper by its name.

For instance, to perform a click with Playwright helper, do it like this:

doAwesomeThingsWithPlaywright() {
  const { Playwright } = this.helpers;
  Playwright.click('Awesome');    
}

After a custom helper is finished you can update CodeceptJS Type Definitions by running:

npx codeceptjs def .

This way, if your tests are written with TypeScript, your IDE will be able to leverage features like autocomplete and so on.

# Accessing Elements

WebDriver, Puppeteer, Playwright, and Protractor drivers provide API for web elements. However, CodeceptJS do not expose them to tests by design, keeping test to be action focused. If you need to get access to web elements, it is recommended to implement operations for web elements in a custom helper.

To get access for elements, connect to a corresponding helper and use _locate function to match web elements by CSS or XPath, like you usually do:

# Acessing Elements in WebDriver

// inside a custom helper
async clickOnEveryElement(locator) {
  const { WebDriver } = this.helpers;
  const els = await WebDriver._locate(locator);

  for (let el of els) {
    await el.click();
  }
}

In this case an an instance of webdriverio element is used. To get a complete API of an element (opens new window) refer to webdriverio docs.

# Accessing Elements in Playwright & Puppeteer

Similar method can be implemented for Playwright & Puppeteer:

// inside a custom helper
async clickOnEveryElement(locator) {
  const { Playwright } = this.helpers;
  const els = await Playwright._locate(locator);

  for (let el of els) {
    await el.click();
  }
}

In this case el will be an instance of ElementHandle (opens new window) which is similar for Playwright & Puppeteer (opens new window).

ℹ There are more _locate* methods in each helper. Take a look on documentation of a helper you use to see which exact method it exposes.

# Configuration

Helpers should be enabled inside codecept.json or codecept.conf.js files. Command generate helper does that for you, however you can enable them manually by placing helper to helpers section inside config file. You can also pass additional config options to your helper from a config - (please note, this example contains comments, while JSON format doesn't support them):

helpers: {
  // here goes standard helpers:
  // WebDriver, Protractor, Nightmare, etc...
  // and their configuration
  MyHelper: {
    require: "./my_helper.js", // path to module
    defaultHost: "http://mysite.com" // custom config param
  }

}

Config values will be stored inside helper in this.config. To get defaultHost value you can use

this.config.defaultHost

in any place of your helper. You can also redefine config options inside a constructor:

constructor(config) {
  config.defaultHost += '/api';
  console.log(config.defaultHost); // http://mysite.com/api
  super(config);
}

# Hooks

Helpers may contain several hooks you can use to handle events of a test. Implement corresponding methods to them.

  • _init - before all tests
  • _finishTest - after all tests
  • _before - before a test
  • _after - after a test
  • _beforeStep - before each step
  • _afterStep - after each step
  • _beforeSuite - before each suite
  • _afterSuite - after each suite
  • _passed - after a test passed
  • _failed - after a test failed

Each implemented method should return a value as they will be added to global promise chain as well.

# Conditional Retries

It is possible to execute global conditional retries to handle unforseen errors. Lost connections and network issues are good candidates to be retried whenever they appear.

This can be done inside a helper using the global promise recorder:

Example: Retrying rendering errors in Puppeteer.

_before() {
  const recorder = require('codeceptjs').recorder;
  recorder.retry({
    retries: 2,
    when: err => err.message.indexOf('Cannot find context with specified id') > -1,
  });
}

recorder.retry acts similarly to I.retry() and accepts the same parameters. It expects the when parameter to be set so it would handle only specific errors and not to retry for every failed step.

Retry rules are available in array recorder.retries. The last retry rule can be disabled by running recorder.retries.pop();

# Using Typescript

With Typescript, just simply replacing module.exports with export for autocompletion.

# Helper Examples

# Playwright Example

In this example we take the power of Playwright to change geolocation in our tests:

const Helper = require('@codeceptjs/helper');

class MyHelper extends Helper {

  async setGeoLocation(longitude, latitude) {
    const { browserContext } = this.helpers.Playwright;
    await browserContext.setGeolocation({ longitude, latitude });
    await Playwright.refreshPage();
  }
}

# WebDriver Example

Next example demonstrates how to use WebDriver library to create your own test action. Method seeAuthentication will use browser instance of WebDriver to get access to cookies. Standard NodeJS assertion library will be used (you can use any).

const Helper = require('@codeceptjs/helper');

// use any assertion library you like
const assert = require('assert');

class MyHelper extends Helper {
  /**
   * checks that authentication cookie is set
   */
  async seeAuthentication() {
    // access current browser of WebDriver helper
    const { WebDriver } = this.helpers
    const { browser } = WebDriver;

    // get all cookies according to http://webdriver.io/api/protocol/cookie.html
    // any helper method should return a value in order to be added to promise chain
    const res = await browser.cookie();
    // get values
    let cookies = res.value;
    for (let k in cookies) {
      // check for a cookie
      if (cookies[k].name != 'logged_in') continue;
      assert.equal(cookies[k].value, 'yes');
      return;
    }
    assert.fail(cookies, 'logged_in', "Auth cookie not set");
  }
}

module.exports = MyHelper;

# Puppeteer Example

Puppeteer has nice and elegant API (opens new window) which you can use inside helpers. Accessing page instance via this.helpers.Puppeteer.page from inside a helper.

Let's see how we can use emulate (opens new window) function to emulate iPhone browser in a test.

const Helper = require('@codeceptjs/helper');
const puppeteer = require('puppeteer');
const iPhone = puppeteer.devices['iPhone 6'];

class MyHelper extends Helper {

  async emulateIPhone() {
    const { page } = this.helpers.Puppeteer;
    await page.emulate(iPhone);
  }

}

module.exports = MyHelper;

# Protractor Example

Protractor example demonstrates usage of global element and by objects. However browser should be accessed from a helper instance via this.helpers['Protractor']; We also use chai-as-promised library to have nice assertions with promises.

const Helper = require('@codeceptjs/helper');

// use any assertion library you like
const chai = require('chai');
const chaiAsPromised = require('chai-as-promised');
chai.use(chaiAsPromised);
const expect = chai.expect;

class MyHelper extends Helper {
  /**
   * checks that authentication cookie is set
   */
  seeInHistory(historyPosition, value) {
    // access browser instance from Protractor helper
    this.helpers['Protractor'].browser.refresh();

    // you can use `element` as well as in protractor
    const history = element.all(by.repeater('result in memory'));

    // use chai as promised for better assertions
    // end your method with `return` to handle promises
    return expect(history.get(historyPosition).getText()).to.eventually.equal(value);
  }
}

module.exports = MyHelper;
Last Updated: 9/30/2020, 3:49:15 PM